AP Human Geography Chapter 4

1) The frequent repetition of an act, to the extent that it becomes characteristic of a group of people is a
A) custom. B) popular culture. C) habit. D) taboo.
2) A repetitive act performed by an individual is a
A) custom. B) popular culture.
C) habit. D) taboo.
3) In contrast to folk culture, popular culture is typical of
A) small homogeneous groups.
B) large heterogeneous groups.
C) groups living in isolated rural areas. D) groups that have little interaction with other groups.
4) Which of the following characteristics is more typical of a popular culture than a folk culture?
A) It has an anonymous origin. B) It diffuses slowly from its point of origin.
C) It results in a more uniform landscape. D) It is likely to be derived from physical conditions.
5) Folk cultures are spread primarily by
A) contagious diffusion. B) hierarchical diffusion.
C) relocation diffusion.
D) stimulus diffusion.
6) The use of a horse and buggy by the Amish in the United States is an example of a
A) folk culture. B) habit. C) popular culture. D) taboo.
7) Popular customs are more likely than folk customs to
A) evolve from the isolation of different groups.
B) rapidly diffuse through modern communication systems.
C) reflect the unique characteristics of the landscape. D) have an unknown source of origin.
8) Rapid diffusion of popular culture
A) encourages people in different places to adopt different customs.
B) depends on modern communication systems.
C) is an example of relocation diffusion. D) conserves resources.
9) Typically, popular culture
A) originates in a number of locations at the same time. B) reflects the characteristics of a distinctive physical environment.
C) experiences frequent changes. D) is practiced by small homogeneous groups.
10) In contrast to popular culture, folk cultures are more likely to vary
A) from place to place at a given time. B) from time to time at a given place.
C) both from place to place and from time to time. D) neither from place to place nor from time to time.
11) The main effect of modern communications on social customs has been to
A) preserve folk cultures, by increasing awareness of their uniqueness.
B) stimulate the diffusion of folk cultures around the world.
C) increase the similarity of social customs in different locations.
D) have little effect on the diffusion of social customs.
12) Folk customs usually originate from
A) the availability of more leisure time. B) the application of industrial technology.
C) familiar events in daily life.
D) a famous historical event.
13) Hip Hop music originated in New York the late 1970s in
A) Queens. B) Harlem. C) Brooklyn.
D) the South Bronx.
14) Folk songs are distinguished from popular songs because they
A) tell a story about daily activities. B) can be understood only by one group.
C) are never changed from one generation to the next. D) are only transmitted orally.
15) An example of a folk custom used to diffuse information about agriculture is
A) Armed Forces Radio. B) Association Football. C) Himalayan art.
D) Vietnamese songs.
16) Popular customs most frequently originate in
A) more developed countries. B) less developed countries. C) former communist countries.
D) countries with large rural populations.
17) The spatial distribution of soccer during the twentieth century is an example of
A) folk culture. B) habit.
C) popular culture. D) taboo.
18) The current distribution of soccer demonstrates that
A) a folk custom can become part of a popular culture. B) all sports are examples of folk culture.
C) television has infused all sports into popular culture. D) American football is also an example of a folk culture.
19) The distribution of the subjects of art in the Himalayas shows how folk cultures
A) always paint religious subjects.
B) are influenced by distinctive vegetation, climate, and religion.
C) avoid painting animate objects. D) typically paint scenes of nature but not people.
20) Which concept is the contemporary geographer likely to reject?
A) The physical environment causes people to adopt social customs. B) People in similar environments adopt different social customs.
C) People ignore their physical environment.
D) A and C
21) The geographer Vidal de la Blache regarded food supply as
A) the best available example of a folk custom. B) the folk custom most closely tied to a particular climate.
C) less subject to modification than the clothing and weapons.
D) all of the above
22) A restriction on behavior imposed by social custom is a
A) folk culture. B) habit. C) popular culture.
D) taboo.
23) A taboo against pork is a characteristic of
A) Judaism and Islam. B) Judaism and Buddhism. C) Christianity and Buddhism.
D) Christianity and Hinduism.
24) China produces a relatively large amount of pork compared to the countries of Southwestern Asia primarily because
A) Moslems have a taboo against pork consumption. B) China’s physical environment is less suitable to raising pigs.
C) China has more people than the countries of Southwest Asia. D) Rice is the main cereal grain grown in China.
25) The Yuan and Shan peoples in northern Thailand sleep with their heads toward the east
A) as a sign of obeying a customary hierarchy. B) so that the head is opposite the neighbors’ heads.
C) because the head is considered high and noble.
D) to avoid the direction of death and evil spirits.
26) Which of the following is not an important factor in distinguishing different folk housing types in the United States?
A) choice of building materials
B) size of the building C) form in which the structure is arranged
D) climate in which the structure is built
27) Pioneer farmers settling the grasslands of the American West often built houses of sod, while early settlers of the eastern forest built wooden structures like log cabins. This suggests that building materials
A) are strongly influenced by local resources. B) are commonly imported long distance because of local folk culture.
C) are chosen because of the diffusion of popular culture. D) are a uniform feature of folk culture.
28) Which of the following is an important source area for U.S. folk house types?
A) Lower Chesapeake B) Southern Atlantic C) Northeast D) Upper New York
29) Today, house types in the United States are distinguished by all but which of the following?
) They can still be divided into three distinct regions. B) They display few regional distinctions.
C) They are usually mass-produced. D) Alternative styles have diffused throughout the country.
30) The most important house style in the United States since the 1960s is known as
A) minimal traditional. B) contemporary. C) split-level.
D) neo-eclectic.
31) The diffusion of jeans is a good example primarily of the
A) diffusion of popular culture.
B) adoption of unique folk culture. C) impact of high income on clothing habits.
D) opposition to globalization.
32) Americans’ preferences for beverages and snacks
A) vary according to what is produced locally. B) vary from one region of the country to another.
C) vary according to religious differences. D) are primarily dependent on high income and national advertising.
33) In which state would alcohol consumption be relatively low?
A) Kentucky B) Nevada C) New York
D) Utah
34) The distribution of alcohol consumption in the United States displays which of these typical characteristics of popular culture?
A) rapid diffusion B) close relationship to level of income C) little regard for features of the physical environment
D) all of the above
35) Which element of the local physical environment is important for wine production?
A) climate B) soil C) topography
D) all of the above
36) Which of the following is not a distinctive characteristic of the physical environment related to wine?
A) The quality of the wine depends on the weather in a particular year. B) Each type of wine reflects the presence of distinctive trace elements in the soil.
C) Vineyards must be planted on flat land. D) The need for moderate, wet winters and long, hot summers.
37) Little wine is produced in Asia primarily because
A) grapes do not grow in these regions. B) wines can be imported more cheaply. C) religious taboos discourage consumption.
D) the people do not have a tradition of wine making.
38) One significant impact of popular culture is to
A) create a more varied and less uniform landscape. B) promote the diffusion of folk culture.
C) modify the physical environment.
D) spread through relocation diffusion.
39) Diffusion of Internet service is following the earlier pattern of television, except
A) the United States share of world use is expanding.
B) diffusion is much faster. C) diffusion is much slower.
D) expansion of service is faster in Africa than Asia.
40) The number of television sets per person is greatest in
A) Africa. B) Asia.
C) Europe. D) Latin America.
41) The choice of clothing in Western countries is strongly influenced by
A) occupation. B) level of income. C) knowledge of fashion elsewhere.
D) all of the above
42) Features of the U.S. landscape, such as gas stations, supermarkets, and motels,
A) promote a uniform landscape. B) reflect the preservation of folk culture. C) provide diversity on the U.S. landscape.
D) promote diffusion of folk culture.
43) Many less developed countries fear the loss of folk culture because
A) they do not want to preserve traditional values.
B) Western perspectives may become more dominant.
C) popular culture devalues women. D) they want to avoid political disputes.
44) Diffusion of popular customs can adversely impact environmental quality in two ways:
A) reducing demand for foreign products and promoting local crafts. B) increased diversity and decreased demand.
C depletion of scarce resources and pollution. D) diversity of products and slow change.
45) Western dominance of the news media is feared in less developed countries for all but which of these reasons?
A) Western countries supply a large percentage of the television news video.
B) Western countries control most of the newspapers in less developed countries.
C) Western radio newscasts can be heard in most countries.
D) Western values permeate the media.
46) People maintain their folk culture despite familiarity with popular culture primarily because of
A) the high cost of popular customs. B) concern for the physical environment.
C) strong desire to preserve unique customs.
D) lack of exposure to the media.
47) Popular culture and folk culture can both result in a higher level of
A) extinction of animal species. B) demand for raw materials. C) consumption of animal products.
D) all of the above
48) As they have more contact with popular culture, women in less developed countries are more likely to
A) bear more children. B) obtain food for the family.
C) gain more opportunities outside the home.
D) reduce the practice of prostitution.
49) In the United States, the number of golf courses per person is highest in
A) the south, where the climate is favorable. B) the northeast, where golf originated.
C) the north central states, where there is a long tradition of playing golf. D) the west, where golfers are clustered.
50) One impact of large-scale consumption of chicken in more developed countries is to
A) cause chickens to become an endangered species.
B) make inefficient use of the world’s grain supplies.
C) diffuse agricultural products into the physical environment. D) encourage the development of a new food taboo.
51) Modern communications methods have _________ of social customs. A) slowed the dissemination
B) had little effect on the spread
C) increased the global uniformity
D) led to the fragmentation
52) Folk songs
A) focus on daily activities. B) Cannot become part of popular culture.
C) are inseparable from the acoustic guitar.
D) have so far been of little cultural significance in the United States.
53) Hog production is lowest in
A) North Africa B) Europe C) South America
D) East Asia
54) Wine production typically requires all of the following, except A) Well-drained soils
B) Supportive customs C) Proximity to water
D) Cool summers
55) In America, tequila is consumed primarily in the A) Northwest B) Midwest
C) Southwest D) Southeast
56) Internet use is least prevalent in A) North America B) Europe
C) Japan
D) Central Africa
57) Similar restaurants, gas stations, and stores throughout the United States
A) illustrate how popular culture can create a uniform landscape.
B) show how folk culture can diffuse. C) are a prime example of globalization.
D) increase cultural awareness.
58) Major hearths of U.S. country music include all but which of the following?
A) southern Appalachia B) central Tennessee and Kentucky C) the Ozark and Ouachita Mts.
D) southwestern Texas
59) Geographers are concerned with the distribution of which of the following aspects of television service?
A) number of receivers per capita B) method of government control C) year service was adopted
D) none of the above
60) Clothing became a powerful symbol in Iran, in part because
A) Islamic fundamentalists rejected the traditional uncut robes. B) women were strongly urged to wear different types of skirts and blouses.
C) moderate leaders wore Western-style business suits. D) all of the above
61) Folk culture is an example of what? A) cultural diffusion
B) relocation diffusion C) innovation diffusion D) hierarchical diffusion
62) One of the strongest connections that tie people to a certain environment is what? A) clothing B) weapons
] C) food supply D) building materials
63) Muslims embrace the taboo against pork because
A) pigs would compete with humans for food and water without compensating benefits as a beast of burden B) pigs do not provide milk or wool C) raising pigs would be an ecological disaster in regions where Muslims live
D) all of the above are true
64) Which three places are major hearths (or nodes) of folk house forms in the United States?
A) Pennsylvania, Maine, and South Carolina B) New York, Massachusetts, and Georgia
C) New England, Middle Atlantic, and Lower Chesapeake
D) Southwestern region, Midwest, and New England
65) Neo-eclectic houses are called what
A) Mansard B) Neo-Tudor C) Neo-French
D) all of the above
66) Small satellite dishes have made television a force for political change because
A) rebel groups can secretly broadcast political messages to the people B) the small satellite dishes are so cheap anyone can afford them C) totalitarian leaders can no longer lie to their people because of the ubiquitous television set
D) these small recievers enable people to choose from a wide variety of programs produced in other countries, not just the local government- controlled station
67) Government censorship is much more difficult to enforce in countries without freedom of speech because of
A) FAX machines. B) the Internet. C) cellular phones.
D) all of the above
68) Viewing the house types in four communities of western China, what is the one unifying characteristic of all four house types? A) It has to do with protection against mauraders B) Some regions of China are wealthier than others, allowing for more elaborate architecture C) Each house type provides unique physiographic benefits
D) all of the above are true
69) Using regional differences in house types, select a reason why you believe styles changed from north to south. A) Double Pile provided better protection against harsh winters. B) Ranch homes provided easy access for older people locating in the south C) Ranch homes reflected a more casual living style for the south
D) all of the above are true
70) The physical environment commonly plays an important role in the development of unique folk customs.
Answer: True
71) The origin of popular music is a good example of how folk culture originates.
Answer: False
72) A major factor in the diffusion of British football was the presence of British citizens in other countries.
Answer: True
73) In general, folk culture is more likely to cause greater uniformity on the landscape than popular culture.
Answer: False
74) Two social groups living in close proximity will retain unique social customs if there is limited interaction between them.
Answer: True
75) Food taboos usually derive from unique elements of the physical environment.
Answer: False
76) The highest concentration of golf courses within the United States is in the Sunbelt.
Answer: False
77) Leaders of many developing countries fear that the spread of American popular culture will destroy traditional social behavior.
Answer: True
78) Although folk cultures have the same process of origin as popular culture, they have a more limited process of diffusion.
Answer: False
79) Adoption of Western popular culture seldom results in the elimination of traditional folk culture.
Answer: False
80) More precise geographic information is given on the label of a good bottle of wine than on a poor bottle.
Answer: True
81) The adoption of a popular custom depends primarily on the amount of disposable income.
Answer: True
82) Hotels, fast-food restaurants, and other franchises encourage a uniform appearance on the landscape to promote customer recognition.
Answer: True
83) House types in the eastern United States can be traced to three source areas: Michigan, Chesapeake Bay, and Ohio.
Answer: False
84) Different house types in relatively developed countries make different arrangements for sacred space.
Answer: False
85) There are two dominant categories of material culture: folk and custom.
Answer: False
86) Primarily small, homogeneous groups living in isolated rural areas traditionally practice folk culture.
Answer: True
87) Popular culture is found in large, heterogeneous societies that share certain habits.
Answer: True
88) The two aspects geographers focus on in terms of where folk and popular cultures are located are spatial distribution for each activity, and the link between material culture and the physical environment.
Answer: True
89) Groups living in proximity may generate a variety of folk customs in a limited geographic area because of limited communication.
Answer: True
90) Landscapes dominated by a collection of folk customs can change significantly over time.
Answer: False
91) Electronic communication facilitates frequent changes in popular customs
Answer: True
92) Popular customs often have anonymous hearths.
Answer: False
93) The percentage of leisure time has increased as a result of swings in the labor force from predominantly agricultural work to predominantly service and manufacturing work.
Answer: True
94) The Armed Forces Radio Network during WWII was a responsible for the beginning of the planet-wide diffusion of American popular music.
Answer: True
95) The environment is the only control over social customs.
Answer: False
96) Folk societies are particularly responsive to the environment because of their low level of technology and the prevailing agricultural economy.
Answer: true
97) One of the surest way to identify a family’s ethnic origins is to look in its kitchen.
Answer: True
98) Sod homes built during the 18th and 19th centuries in the Great Plains region were a response primarily to a lack of trees.
Answer: True
99) Basements are more likely to be found in northeastern homes than in southeastern homes.
Answer: True
100) Television is the most important mechanism by which knowledge of popular culture is rapidly diffused around the world.
Answer: True
101) Television has played a major role in increasing the ability of a government to control people’s daily lives.
Answer: True
102) The concepts of legal equality and availability of economic and social opportunities outside the home have become widely accepted in more developed countries, even where women in reality continue to suffer from discriminatory practices.
Answer: True
103) Most television programs shown throughout the world come from the United States, England, and Japan.
Answer: True
104) The diffusion of some popular customs can deplete scarce natural resources and pollute the landscape.
Answer: True
105) What is the difference between a custom and a habit?
Answer: Custom is performed by group of people; habit by an individual.
106) Name three of the six countries in which television technology originally developed.
Answer: United States; United Kingdom; France; Germany; Japan; Soviet Union (any three)
107) The house type in the eastern United States which diffused most widely into the interior of the country was ________.
Answer: Middle Atlantic “I” house
108) Which country would have a higher per capita consumption of pork, India or China? Why?
Answer: China; taboo against pork consumption by Hindus
109) Which of these countries would you expect to have the highest wine production per capita, France, Chile, or Brazil? Which of the three would have the lowest?
Answer: France; Brazil
110) What is one of the major differences in the origin of a popular culture compared to a folk culture?
Answer: popular customs are invented; folk customs have anonymous source, unknown date, unknown originator
111) What is one of the major differences in the process of diffusion of popular culture compared to a folk custom?
Answer: Popular customs diffuse more rapidly, more extensively, and through modern communications. Folk customs diffuse more slowly, at a smaller scale, and through migration.
112) What television technology foils attempts by the governments to restrict television access?
Answer: satellite dish antenna receivers
113) Why do promoters of popular customs, such as fast-food restaurants, seek to create a uniform landscape appearance?
: Recognition generates higher consumption.
114) Why do leaders of some developing countries fear the loss of folk culture?
Answer: loss of traditional values; fear of domination by Western countries