AP Human Geography Chapter 1

date orientation, grid, situation, title, author, index, legend, scale
What are the five themes of geography
Location, place, region, human-enviromental interaction, movement
What are the two types of location?
relative and absolute
What is place?
physical characteristics of an area
What is region?
cultural characteristics
What is movement?
how people get around
What is Globalization?
It is the shrinking of the world
What is an examlpe of globalization
an example of globalization would be pop culture
What is the opposite of globalization
Local Diversity: folk culture
Who was the man who knew the world wasnt flat?
Who were the people who invented the word geography?
The greeks
What are the types of maps?
topographic and thematic maps
What are topographic maps?
They are maps that use contour lines to show elevation
What are choropleth maps?
They are maps that express a particular theme using colors
What are the types of thematic maps?
choropleth, isoline, dot density, flow-line, and cartogram maps
What are isoline maps?
they calculate data across a surface
What are dot density maps?
They use dots to display the amount of people or something that are in a specific area
What are flow-line maps?
They use lines to show direction and movement patterns
What are cartograms?
They use shapes and areas that have been purposely distorted to show data
What is the US Land Ordinance of 1785?
It was a system made when the west was first being settled to divide it up as equally as possible; It uses the township and range system.
What are the four ways to identify location?
Place names, site, situation, and mathematical/absolute
What is a toponym?
a name given to a place
the physical character of a place (like a castle or weather)
Location of a place relative to other places (relative location)
absolute location
longitude and latitude
What are the types of regions?
formal/uniform region, functional nodal region, and vernacular (perceptual) region
What is a formal region?
a region with well defined boundaries that have a large degree of homogeneity (examples state, country, city limit)
What is a functional region?
economic region (examples: the circulation of a newspaper) functional regions ignore formal region boundaries
What is a vernacular region?
people believe this region exists (example the american south)
What is cultural landscape?
the forms superimposed on the physical environment by the activities of humans (how the world looks because humans live on it)
Who came up with the concept of cultural landscape?
Carl sauer
What is cultural ecology?
the geographic study of human-enviroment relationships
What are the two perspectives of cultural ecology?
enviromental determinism and possiblism
What is enviromental determinism?
The physical environment caused social development
Who came up with the concept of environmental determinism?
Alexander von Humboldt and Carl Ritter
What is possiblism?
That the physical environment may limit social development, but people adjust
What are the human physical processes?
climate, vegetation (biomes), soil, landforms
Why are the human physical processes important?
they control human activities and help people to understand them
What is land reclamation?
creating new land; literally (examples: the netherlands and new york)
What are multinational/transnational corporations?
they are companies based in one country and sells in another (nike is an example)
What is density?
frequency with which something occurs
what are the two types of density?
arithmetic, physiological, and agriculture
What is arithmetic density?
numbers (most common is population)
What is physiological density?
number of persons per unit of arable land
What is agricultural density?
number of farmers per arable land
what are the 3 types of distribution
density, concentration, and patterns
What is distribution?
arrangement of a feature in space
What is concentration?
the spread of something over an area (clustered vs. dispersed)
What are patterns?
the geometric arrangement of something
why is space time compression important?
if it wasnt for this there wouldn’t be globalization
What is diffusion?
the process by which a characteristic spreads across space over time
What is a hearth?
the source of an innovation
How is hearth and diffusion connected?
The hearth is where an idea is created and diffusion is how that idea spreads
What are the types of diffusion?
relocation and expansion
What is relocation?
physical movement and you bring something with you
What is expansion?
the snowball effect
what are the types of expansion?
contagious, hierarchical, and stimulus
What is an example of hierarchical diffusion?
the spread of rap music; the idea spread from the big cities to small cities (higher in power to lower in power)
What is an example of contagious diffusion?
someone really liking someone’s shirt and then buying it, and the someone likes their shirt and buys it and the cycle continues.
What is stimulus diffusion?
something originates in its hearth but later becomes more successful somewhere else
What is distance decay?
the farther you get away from the node the less popular and interested people are. (its why long distance relationships dont work)
remember to look over time zone worksheet!
What degrees is the international dateline?
0 degrees longitude