The Impact of Music on the Performance of a Runner

Title of research project: What type of music is the most effective in helping a 14 year old runner to complete his run (mm) in the shortest time Name I Signature I Date I Name of Teacher-mentor: Signature: Date: Abstract Many people in Singapore face many obstacles while running- one of which is the fatigue that they experience after running for some time. Hence our project aims to help to solve this problem by investigating whether running Witt music will allow them to feel less tired, and more importantly investigate which genre of music will be most effective in doing so.

Also, we aim to gain a deeper understanding of how music can help to reduce fatigue, through a series of social surveys, interviews, and literature reviews. According to professional runners and sport scientists, music is capable of allowing a runner to feel less tired during his run because it blocks off fatigue-related messages to the brain. This has inspired us into investigating what kind of genre of music helps people or different types of people run better. Acknowledgements Firstly, we would like to thank our teacher-mentor Mr..

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Leroy Coho for guiding us throughout the research education project and giving us insightful and invaluable moments to help us achieve a good research topic and report. We would also like to thank him for taking his valuable time to correct our mistakes and give suggestions to our different tasks and also taking time to answer any of our queries. Lastly, he also gave us relevant and detailed advice when conducting our research and surveys, and also in the making of our final report. Secondly, we would like to thank all the surveys who have provided us with their crucial perspectives on running with music.

List of Songs & Music Information Appendix V: Table of individual test run timings Appendix VI: Articles for review of literature Chapter 1: Introduction Statement of objective/problem Many runners complain about a similar problem during their runs. This problem is imminent in our daily lives- fatigue. Although this seems like a very minor problem, this is one of the main factors discouraging people from running. To counter this problem, many sports scientists have proposed the idea of running with music.

In our project, we aim to investigate whether running with music can indeed reduce the fatigue experienced by runners, and specifically which genre of music is the most capable of doing so. Purpose of the study We chose to research on this topic because many Gingersnaps run as a form of exercise or for competitions. One of the everyday problems we face when running is the fatigue we experience after running a distance. According to an article, music can make running easier because it blocks fatigue-related messages from reaching our brains (Running with music, 2010. Reenrolled. Com).

Music also invokes positive emotions in us, giving us the optimal mind-set and allowing us to run faster. This research topic aims to help runners overcome their fatigue, by finding out which genre of music works best for running. Research Question and Hypothesis Our research question is what type of music is the most effective in helping a 14 year old runner to complete his run (mm) in the shortest time? We predict that deputes music would allow a 14 year old runner to run m in the shortest possible time as deputes music has the fastest beats per minute while classical music would make the runner have the slowest time for mm run.

This is also due to the fact that classical music has the slowest beats per minute and that would make the runner slower than running without any music. Limitations of Study Some limitations of our study is that the results might be inaccurate as different runners may have different preferences of music type than others and might even UN faster with music of a slower tempo (classical). The weather could also affect the performance of the runners. As we are holding our test runs on different days, if one test run is held on a hot day, the runners might run slower than if it was held on a cooler day.

Definition of Terms In this research paper, the term “running” refers to at least 15 minutes of sustained running, and the “14 year old runners” used in the research experiment refers to 14 year old boys from Raffles Institution, who have attained at least a bronze award for NAP. Chapter 2: Review of Literature Source of Primary material For our RE project, we will be conducting a survey, interview, experiment and we will also be conducting an observation. So far, we have completed the survey and we are in the process of finding an interviewee and test subjects.

We have 35 survey responses and we will be looking for around 30 test subjects for our experiment. Our survey was conducted at Cube shopping mall and the survey was conducted on 1/3/13. <Can music make you a better runner> Source of Secondary material Title of Material: Can music make you a better runner. Author/ Editor: Matt Fitzgerald (Author) Identification of source: http://www. Active. Com/running/Articles/Can-Music-Make-You-a-Better-Runner. HTML? CPM=291 m p; p; ich@hotmail. Com Date of publication: -NIL- Reliability of information a) What are the author’s credentials?

Matt Fitzgerald, the author, earned a . In English trot Haverford College . Tater en graduated, he received an offer from Bill Stocky, the original founder of Tripartite, to Join the tiny staff of an endurance sports startup magazine based in Causality. His career has included stints in different sports magazines. A certified sports nutritionist, he has served as a consultant to numerous sports nutrition companies. As such, the author is definitely qualified to write the article about running with music based on his credentials. B) Does the author have a bias?

The purpose of the source was to find out if running with music could enable one to run faster, by observing some situations of people running with music. This will then allow the audience to know in greater depth, the value of running. The intended audience of the source would be the runners who will have a greater knowledge of better ways of running. “Matt intends to keep racing until he can’t. He’s run a bunch of marathons and nettles shorter running events” The source states that the author loves to race and this might make him more favorable to running to music and he might be biased towards running with music. ) Is there corroboration from other independent sources? Yes, according to research done by researchers at Liverpool John Mores University in England in which they found out that music can really benefit a runner; tests have shown that performance of athletes with music was higher than without. It has been proved that the brain chooses to impose fatigue based on a prediction of where the body’s true physiological limits lie. ) Is there a reputation for reliability? The website the article was from has its own domain name (http://www. Active. Com). The domain name is reliable and reputable as the entire website is describing about the different ways to have an active lifestyle. Many people also visit this website to get more information, and they find it reliable as seen by the 775,1 59 Backbone likes. E) Do the circumstances in which the claims are made affect their credibility? No date was provided for when the article was written, and the article is less credible as we are unsure of whether the article is still relevant in current times.

The article provides very important background information and also gives some essential statistics that will benefit our topic. However, the writer met two people who ran with music, one of them being Kara Cougher who listened to music whenever she had a run The writer, tater some observing, realized that a good song may alleviate the boredom of a long marathon training run, take the edge off one’s suffering during a brutal interval session, or add a layer of pure enjoyment to an easy recovery Jog. Therefore the claim in which has been made might be have some credibility in them.

Usefulness of information to the project ) What are the writer’s arguments? The writer argues that running with music could allow one to be a better runner. B) What reasons did the author give in order to support the arguments? The author found out that music could alleviate the boredom of a long marathon training run, take the edge off one’s suffering during a brutal interval session or add a layer of pure enjoyment to an easy recovery Jog. It was scientifically proven that music could allow one to run better as the brain imposes the fatigue at a later stage.

Also, he argued that when the athlete is highly-motivated (listening to music), there ill be a better performance as the brain imposes the fatigue at a later stage These reasons are acceptable as they are scientifically proven by students of a university. As such it logically leads to the conclusion that music enables one to run better. C) What is/are the underlying assumption(s) behind the arguments? The assumption would be if the tests conducted were fair and correct, and if the assumption is wrong, it could affect the credibility of the findings. ) How relevant/useful are the arguments to your project? The arguments are very useful and we can use the information in our discussion/ inclusions section in the final report. The information can also be used to explain why running with music could be more effective, and it could also explain our findings in our experiment. Furthermore, it can show us how great the impact of music can be on the runners’ performance and which types of music ensure the best performance. E) What are the strengths and limitations of the information provided in this source?

The strength would be that the findings were all made by reliable sources such as universities and they have been scientifically proven. Some limitations could be that there were not enough of these findings. Let;Running with music> Title of Material: Running with music u or Editor: Dry. Andrew Lane (Protestor) http://www. Nash. UK/Lively/kick/Pages/running-music. Asps Date of publication: -NIL- a) I) The author is sports and exercise expert Professor Andrew Lane, who is able to give us an expert opinion and view on the effects of running with music.

Andrew Lane is a Professor of Sport Psychology at the University of Yellowhammers. He has authored more than 100 peer refereed Journal articles and edited two books. He has organized two national conferences, including the annual BASES conference. (Lane, 2012) t) The author is very qualified to write this document because he has a tertiary education, has reputable reputation, that he has been invited to do national conferences, shows how he is respected and reliable on a nation-wide scale. ) I) This source is neutral, because it’s main intended purpose is to educate the reading audience, for them to have a better understanding of the topic discussed. He does not show any sign of strong promotion for the target audience to have an intended outcome after reading his article. It) This source is intended for the running audience that is seeking ways to improve their running. By writing this source, Lane is able to help these people gain a greater understanding of what steps they can venture into and invest to improve their running. Iii) This source is scholarly and popular.

Because it is published by NASH choices, this shows a kind of confirmation and filtering of relevant information to running with music, thus the great relevance to our work, which is also revolves around the topic of running with music. Iv) The writer does not have a vested interest. This article is non-profit, and the writer would have nothing to benefit if people ran with music, he would Just have improved he running experience of the audience he targets. C) According to other independent sources, an external stimulus such as music can actually block fatigue-related messages from muscles and organs.

When these messages are blocked, you feel like you can run farther, faster. (Adam, 2010) There is indeed corroboration from other independent sources. D) I) This material has its own domain name. It) The domain name NASH is very reliable and reputable. The intimation was published and reviewed likely to follow recent studies and knowledge. 2 Being very recent, it is it) The references and data used are very current, with corroboration with major searchers like Audiotape, and tests conducted to further push their reliability up the mark. Al) The currency of information for our topic is not as important, because no matter how ancient or recent the experiment, runners would still perceive and experience similar running experiences and outcomes due to motivational music. V’) The writer has every right to claim that music does indeed improve running. From his report, I can infer that he has Justified every point with sufficient research and study. Usefulness of information to the project a) The writer gave arguments, stating that research suggests that if you keep n step with the music, your stride will be more rhythmical and therefore more efficient. Lane, 2012) b) The author gave reasons stating that Research suggests that listening to music while exercising can reduce perceptions of effort and fatigue by up to 12%. (Lane, 2012) I) These reasons are acceptable because they include numbers, indicating real research and study being done. I’) These reasons lead to the conclusion stated, because by reducing fatigue, a runner’s biggest obstacle has been reduced, thus he can run much faster. The underlying assumption behind the arguments is that music can influence our state of mind and mood. ) This assumption is acceptable because humans are living things that react to external stimuli.

With music as an auditory stimuli, it is safe to assume that human beings would definitely be affected, mostly emotional and mentally. D) In my group, we will use this information very usefully, by making use of so much research and study done on the part of Professor Andrew Lane, we can glide through our project with ease, using quotes from this reliable source that are relevant to our research. He also gave some song suggestions, which all the other articles did not have. It also talks about how the music beats per minute affect our inning.

This is another aspect that the other articles did not talk about. After reading the article, we are able to gain a deeper insight on running with music, and we can also conduct our experiment while taking into consideration the beats per minute of a song besides its genre. ) The limitation to this intimation provided in the source is that other than exploring into the topic of running to the beat, it has not ventured into the vast study of running with music. However, we will be able to make up for this limitation by conducting our own experiments to test out hypothesis and theories. Let;The Debate n Running with Music> Title of Material: The debate on running with music Author/ Editor: Tracey Ellis http://www. Runarounds. Net/tips-tricks/the-debate-on-running-with-music Date of publication: -NIL- Tracey Ellis is a freelance Journalist who holds a postgraduate diploma in Journalism and a Bachelor of Arts (honors). Tracey Ellis writes articles for Runarounds, a professional running website which provides runners with useful tips on running, and Kiwi, a running blob which writes articles mainly about the issue of running with music. She is also a freelance sports Journalist from Paris and a frequent runner too.

She writes sports blobs forsook. Com, a professional running website. Hence, she is able to provide us with information that is backed up with much experience. Dry. Costa Geographies is a contributing author of the article. He is the Deputy Head of Research in Brunet University, London. He has an international reputation for his research on the psychophysical and recovering effects of music. Dry. Costa Geographies has written over 90 articles on sports and exercise psychology, which have been featured in newspapers around the world (The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal).

Hence, both authors are qualified to write this article. Tracey Ellis, can be seen to be biased towards running with music. However, she keeps in mind that her views in the article are the perception of only one person who prefers running with music. Also, the article includes the results of an investigation conducted by a sports psychologist on the effects of running with music and it also views the topic of “running with music” from the perspective of a typical runner who is deciding whether or not to run with music; hence, overall, the article is not biased.

The main purpose of the article is to allow readers (runners) to gain a deeper insight on the effects of running with music. Essentially, the target audience of the article would be runners. Apparently, the article is not very popular as out of the approximately 1000 readers of Runarounds, only 16 readers have read and commented on the article; but the article is definitely scholarly, as it has the insights of a professional sports psychologist (see author’s credentials: Dry. Costa Geographies).

Since this source is scholarly, it will make a big deterrence to our project research as we can safely say that the information from this article is correct and can be relied upon. Indeed, both authors of the article have a vested interest for running, and Dry. Costa Geographies also a great interest for researching on sports psychology, hence this boosts the reliability of the source. There are a few corroborations from other independent sources, such as Physician. Com (website is currently down) which proves Dry.

Costa Geographies’ theory right about the positive effects of running with music. The article also made references to Audio Fuel and Kiwi, which are professional running websites that talks about running with music. This source has a reputation for reliability as it has its own domain name and is a widely-known website. The article was published 2 years ago, in 2011. The references and claims made in the article are proven to be current with cross references to Audio Fuel and Kiwi, but the data in the article leave much to be desired for, as there is nothing to substantiate it.

However, the currency of the information does not have a great impact on our research as these pieces of information will not necessarily change (effects of running with music will not change over time unless proven by tests). The writer has 2 arguments in the article: running with music is more effective and running with music can be dangerous. The writer backs up her claim that inning with music is more effective with the theory from Dry. Costa Geographies, that running with music can improve athletic performance by 15%.

The reason for her claim is reasonable, hence her claim is logically acceptable. The writer backs up her argument that running with music can be dangerous especially when running in the streets by providing reasons and solutions: listening to music can block off sounds hence runners might not hear the sound of oncoming vehicles and pedestrians. She suggests using sounds-safe earphones or turning the volume down to solve this issue. Her argument is acceptable as the reasons for her claim are very social. This article debates about some of the effects of running with music.

It compares and contrasts running with music and running “naked”, which meaner running without any running gear, it explains how running with music can help runners run more effectively, and also takes into consideration some of the dangers of running with music (using headphones). The whole topic provides much room for debate, especially on the aspect of safety. As such, this article will be very useful for our research as we are able to obtain more information and opinions from everyday runners and we can view the topic of